Photography through the microscope - inclusions within gemstones!
I am a native Los Angelino who loves gems and what’s happening inside them. From the first time I looked through the microscope, into the heart of a gemstone, I was absolutely hooked and after I opened the Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones by Eduard Gübelin and John Koivula, I knew what I wanted to do with every moment of my free time. I can be found on… Instagram: @mineralien Twitter: @innermineralien Tumblr: mineralien.tumblr.com
At the center of most of Sanchez’s pictures are the random bits of minerals stuck in a larger gem as it forms–what are called inclusions. To collectors, they’re imperfections that reduce the value of the stone–to Sanchez, they are things of beauty.
Bottom Image Negative crystal in Spinel Vietnam Field of view = 2.9mm • Depth of field = 0.85mm
It’s not uncommon for spinel to form negative crystals within, but this is one of the most shockingly perfect negative crystals I have come across. The way the light races across its terminations and ghosts the inner cavity with a confusion of color makes this negative space one of the most exciting pieces in my collection.
omg !!! reblog reblog reblog
Huge Dino With Flashy Sail Attacked on Land and Water
The dinosaur Spinosaurus aegyptiacus enjoyed surf with its turf since a new study has found this dino was a skillful swimmer that ate sharks and other marine life, sported an eye-catching sail, and was the biggest carnivorous dinosaur ever known.
The 44,000-pound 50-foot-long beast, described in the latest issue of the journal Science, measured more than 9 feet longer than the world’s largest documented T. rex specimen.
Spinosaurus’ size and big teeth alone would have drawn attention to the dinosaur during its lifetime 95 million years ago. The Cretaceous dino’s large, and possibly multicolored, sail added yet another dramatic feature to its presence.
The huge dinosaur was first discovered in the Egyptian Sahara more than a century ago by German paleontologist Ernst Freiherr Stromer von Reichenbach. The remains were brought to Munich’s state paleontology museum, but were later destroyed during the April 1944 allied forces bombing of parts of Munich.
Ibrahim managed to track down Stromer’s surviving notes, sketches and photos at the Stromer family castle in Bavaria. With an international team of researchers that included paleontologist Paul Sereno, he found additional fossils for Spinosaurus in the Moroccan Sahara along desert cliffs known as the Kem Kem beds. During the dinosaur’s lifetime, this region was once a large river system, stretching from present-day Morocco to Egypt.
CT scanning and digital modeling determined that Spinosaurus was built for both land and marine life. Adaptations for swimming included dense bones similar to those of penguins and sea cows, feet with flat and broad claws that might have been used like paddles, a flexible tail that likely helped with propulsion in water, and much more.
Like a major league pitcher throwing a baseball, archerfish aim a powerful jet of water at their prey and they do it by changing the shapes of their mouths, a new study says.
Archerfish include several different species in the genus Toxotes, which live in Thailand and other parts of Southeast Asia.
Their ability to squirt water jets at prey has made the fish popular in aquariums, which is how researcher Stefan Schuster was first introduced to them. A physicist at the University of Bayreuth in Germany, Schuster studies the nerve circuitry that helps control relatively simple behaviors.
His tiny apartment didn’t have room for a large aquarium, though, so he brought his new pets—which belong to the species Toxotes jaculatrix—into the lab. Watching the fish in action, he realized that his new officemates were the model organism he had been looking for.
After analyzing hundreds of hours of data, Schuster and Gerullis finally had their answer.
When squirting water, archerfish continually change the shapes of their mouths so that the water stream will successfully aim and fire at prey, the study found. By doing this, the fish essentially alter the properties of moving water.Most important, the water at the end of the stream is shot out at a faster speed than the water at the beginning. This means that all the squirted water slams into the victim in a short burst, giving it maximum force.
Both Schuster and Vailati believe that, because the fish actively and deliberately influence the hydrodynamics of the water, it qualifies as tool use. “It’s analogous to a human throwing a stick,” Schuster said.
A diet full of hamburgers, steaks and processed meats isn’t good for you. Worse: It may cause cancer. But a new study suggests that eating certain starchy foods can help offset that threat.
Red meat can damage DNA in the cells lining the digestive tract, explains Karen Humphreys. She is a cancer scientist at Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia. She led the new study, which was published August 4 in Cancer Prevention Research.
That DNA damage can happen in a number of ways. Certain compounds found in red meat can increase the rates at which mutations — genetic changes — occur. Mutations are a common trigger for pre-cancerous changes in the body. Also, iron in red meat can produce free radicals. These electrically charged molecules can damage DNA when they strip electrons from it.
Even the way meats are prepared can damage DNA. High heat (from grilling or frying) produces cancer-causing chemicals called heterocyclic amines (HET-er-oh-SY-klic Aa-MEENS). And processed meats (such as sausages, bacon and luncheon meats) are often cured with chemicals that have been linked with an increased risk of cancer. That’s why dieticians recommend limiting consumption of red meats, such as beef.
Previous studies in animals suggested that resistant starch might help combat the DNA damage caused by red meat. Resistant starch is found in foods such as potatoes, beans and whole grains. Like fiber, this type of starch cannot be digested. Instead, it moves into the large intestine, where microbes ferment it. Fermentation releases what chemists refer to as short-chain fatty acids. At least in animal studies, these chemicals help prevent cancer in cells of the gut. Whether starch could have such an effect in people remained unknown, however. So Humphreys and her team decided to find out.
They recruited a group of healthy volunteers between the ages of 50 and 75. Half of the volunteers ate a diet high in red meat for four weeks. That meant 300 grams (10.6 ounces) of beef or lamb each day. (For perspective, the average American eats less than half that amount.) The other people in the trial ate the same amount of meat plus 40 grams of resistant starch. Before the study, and again at the end of the 4-week period, the scientists collected feces from each participant. They also took tissue samples from the lining of each person’s rectum.
Afterward, the two groups of people switched to the opposite diet for an additional four weeks. The researchers then collected samples again.
When volunteers ate the low-starch diet, their rectal cells boosted their production of microRNAs. These molecules help regulate the production of proteins in the body. Some particular microRNA molecules are abundant in people with colon cancer. That disease affects the large intestine. And those particular microRNAs increased over the course of the 4-week, low-starch diet. So did the growth rate of cells lining the rectum. But when the volunteers ate the diet that boosted their intake of resistant starch, levels of both cancer-promoting microRNAs and rectal-cell growth fell.