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Danny J Sanchez   Photomicrography

Photography through the microscope - inclusions within gemstones!

I am a native Los Angelino who loves gems and what’s happening inside them.
From the first time I looked through the microscope, into the heart of a gemstone, I was absolutely hooked and after I opened the Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones by Eduard Gübelin and John Koivula, I knew what I wanted to do with every moment of my free time.
I can be found on…
Instagram: @mineralien
Twitter: @innermineralien
Tumblr: mineralien.tumblr.com

At the center of most of Sanchez’s pictures are the random bits of minerals stuck in a larger gem as it forms–what are called inclusions. To collectors, they’re imperfections that reduce the value of the stone–to Sanchez, they are things of beauty.

Bottom Image Negative crystal in Spinel
Vietnam
Field of view = 2.9mm • Depth of field = 0.85mm

It’s not uncommon for spinel to form negative crystals within, but this is one of the most shockingly perfect negative crystals I have come across. The way the light races across its terminations and ghosts the inner cavity with a confusion of color makes this negative space one of the most exciting pieces in my collection.

omg !!! reblog reblog reblog

Huge Dino With Flashy Sail Attacked on Land and Water

BY JENNIFER VIEGAS

The dinosaur Spinosaurus aegyptiacus enjoyed surf with its turf since a new study has found this dino was a skillful swimmer that ate sharks and other marine life, sported an eye-catching sail, and was the biggest carnivorous dinosaur ever known.

The 44,000-pound 50-foot-long beast, described in the latest issue of the journal Science, measured more than 9 feet longer than the world’s largest documented T. rex specimen.

Spinosaurus’ size and big teeth alone would have drawn attention to the dinosaur during its lifetime 95 million years ago. The Cretaceous dino’s large, and possibly multicolored, sail added yet another dramatic feature to its presence.

The huge dinosaur was first discovered in the Egyptian Sahara more than a century ago by German paleontologist Ernst Freiherr Stromer von Reichenbach. The remains were brought to Munich’s state paleontology museum, but were later destroyed during the April 1944 allied forces bombing of parts of Munich.

Ibrahim managed to track down Stromer’s surviving notes, sketches and photos at the Stromer family castle in Bavaria. With an international team of researchers that included paleontologist Paul Sereno, he found additional fossils for Spinosaurus in the Moroccan Sahara along desert cliffs known as the Kem Kem beds. During the dinosaur’s lifetime, this region was once a large river system, stretching from present-day Morocco to Egypt.

CT scanning and digital modeling determined that Spinosaurus was built for both land and marine life. Adaptations for swimming included dense bones similar to those of penguins and sea cows, feet with flat and broad claws that might have been used like paddles, a flexible tail that likely helped with propulsion in water, and much more. 

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Mystery Solved: How Archerfish Shoot Water at Prey With Stunning Precision

Posted by Carrie Arnold 

Like a major league pitcher throwing a baseball, archerfish aim a powerful jet of water at their prey and they do it by changing the shapes of their mouths, a new study says.

Archerfish include several different species in the genus Toxotes, which live in Thailand and other parts of Southeast Asia.

Their ability to squirt water jets at prey has made the fish popular in aquariums, which is how researcher Stefan Schuster was first introduced to them. A physicist at the University of Bayreuth in Germany, Schuster studies the nerve circuitry that helps control relatively simple behaviors.

His tiny apartment didn’t have room for a large aquarium, though, so he brought his new pets—which belong to the species Toxotes jaculatrix—into the lab. Watching the fish in action, he realized that his new officemates were the model organism he had been looking for.

Video

Tool-Using Archerfish?

After analyzing hundreds of hours of data, Schuster and Gerullis finally had their answer.

When squirting water, archerfish continually change the shapes of their mouths so that the water stream will successfully aim and fire at prey, the study found. By doing this, the fish essentially alter the properties of moving water.Most important, the water at the end of the stream is shot out at a faster speed than the water at the beginning. This means that all the squirted water slams into the victim in a short burst, giving it maximum force.

Both Schuster and Vailati believe that, because the fish actively and deliberately influence the hydrodynamics of the water, it qualifies as tool use. “It’s analogous to a human throwing a stick,” Schuster said.

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